The Great Ammo Crisis – The Truth Behind The Shortage

The perfect storm.

NRA Shooting Illustrated
by Caleb Giddings – Friday, February 5, 2021

Everyone is aware of the ammunition crisis. Major media outlets have covered it, it’s all over what little of your social media feed hasn’t been censored, and I’ve been covering in detail since July. The ammo crisis has been constantly evolving, starting as a mere shortage in the early days of the COVID-19 lockdowns, and progressing to a full-blown crisis as I write this 321 days after March 13th.

What caused it?

The simple explanation is that demand exceeded the supply, then continued to exceed the supply. But to understand how that happened you have to go a little deeper. According to Jason Vanderbrink, President of Federal, CCI, Speer and Remington, before the COVID-19 pandemic, there was considerable excess capacity in the ammunition market.

Manufacturers could make more than they could sell, so supply was abundant and prices were low. You could order a case of 9 mm off the Internet for $200. Manufacturers were prepared for an uptick in sales that normally accompanies a presidential election, but the excess capacity would have been enough to cover that.

2020 had other ideas. The first was the COVID-19 pandemic. Then a summer of civil unrest that sometimes turned violent. A hotly contested presidential election, and then the party of gun control having control of both houses of Congress and the Presidency.

Any single one of those would have spiked demand, but all these factors happening in rapid succession was more than the market could bear. Partly because the NSSF estimates that 7 million new gun owners entered the market in 2020. As Vanderbrink pointed out, if those 7 million new gun owners each bought 100 rounds of ammo, that’s 700 million rounds that the market needs to produce.

To put that in context, the entire commercial market in 2018 made approximately 8 billion rounds. An 8.75 increase in demand wouldn’t shut everything down, but when it’s added on top of the demand created by all the other factors, it becomes too much.

How high is demand?

During a media presentation at Virtual SHOT Show 2021, Winchester said that if they stopped taking orders for .22 LR right now, it would take 2 years to fill all the back-orders. In December, the Vista family of companies, which comprises Federal, CCI, Speer, and Remington, announced they had a $1 billion backlog in orders. In the first 3 months of the COVID-19 lockdown, Winchester experienced a 17-percent surge in orders, which hasn’t tapered off.

Why can’t they build more factories?

The first question on people’s minds is “Why don’t these companies expand capacity?” That’s much easier said than done. Vista, for example, is already running three shifts a day, and operating 24/7. The same is true for Magtech in Brazil. For one of these companies to add capacity, they’d have to build a new space, and buy new machines, and train and staff the new machines.

All that while hoping that the bottom doesn’t fall out of the ammo market like it did in 2017. That investment in extra space costs millions of dollars and takes years to pay off, and if you look at past trends in the ammo market, not even this surge will last forever.

Why are prices so high at the consumer level?

Vista, Winchester, and Magtech/S&B announced a 15-percent price increase to distributors. Distributors have already raised prices, and of course at the retail level prices are coming up. Prices have to come up to create equilibrium. Eventually the cost to the consumer will be high enough that people won’t panic buy 9 mm FMJ. Retailers will start to have more stock than they can sell and prices will start to come down.

The manufacturer price increase helps as well. In a letter to distributors, Vista announced that all back orders would ship with the higher price. If this causes people to cancel their back order, that frees up theoretical capacity to go into the market. Using AmmoSeek to track historical 9 mm prices, the online price for 9 mm seems to have plateaued at between $0.80 and $0.90 per round for quality new manufactured 9 mm, which is actually a good sign.

Why can’t I get primers?

Only two domestic companies make primers, Vista and Winchester. All their primers are going into their production ammo for retail. Normally, the primer market is fed by companies being able to make more primers than they’d ever need to make loaded ammo. In 2020 and now 2021, that’s not been the case, so every primer that rolls off the line is going into a loaded piece of ammunition so the consumers can have something to immediately shoot. It’s a tough situation for reloaders, but the priority will always be the commercial shooting market.

What about the government?

To answer the question right off the bat, no, the government is not buying ammo and stockpiling it in a warehouse somewhere to keep it off the market. The largest government consumer of ammunition is the Department of Defense, and the majority of their ammo comes from the Lake City plant, which is currently administered by Winchester. Lake City is owned entirely by the government—all the machines, all the land, etc. The government then contracts its operation to private companies, with Winchester taking over for Northrop Grumman in 2020.

Other federal agencies and local LE agencies do source from private manufacturers, but they’re getting squeezed too. Federal contracts are public record, and there has been no unusual ammo related purchasing activity since the shortage began in March. Local LE agencies don’t have the purchasing power to cause a shortage like this, unless there was some secret meeting of all the police chiefs in the country to secretly buy all the ammo (there wasn’t). While it might feel good to believe there’s some sinister force behind the ammo crisis, the answer is a slightly more complicated version of “supply and demand.”

What are the companies doing about it?

As noted above, everything they can. Mike Fisher, the VP of Sales and Marketing at Magtech, said in a phone call, “We’re doing everything we can to get product to our loyal customers. We’ve worked hard to build these relationships and getting them ammo, so they can get it to the consumer, is our first priority.”

In a video statement, Jason Hornady said that they have made a third more ammo this year than they did in the previous year, and also pointed out that there is no government conspiracy to make ammo scarce. As noted above, the price increases across the board will eventually have a stabilizing effect on the supply of ammo, as it will eventually reach a point where most people won’t feel the need to buy.

You can help as well. The most important thing you can do as a consumer is don’t panic. Ammo is available. AmmoSeek shows a daily inventory of what its bots find in stock. There’s ammo for sale on GunBroker and ArmsList. It’s more expensive than any of us would want, but it’s better to have it available than to have empty shelves. The second most important thing you can do is “don’t be that guy.”

You know that guy—the one who finds 55-grain .223 at a great price and cleans the whole place out. That guy sucks. Buy what you need and maybe a little more, but don’t buy 10,000 rounds of ammo you’re going to end up trying to flip to make a car payment in 6 months.

Last, stop repeating conspiracy theories. Contrary to what your favorite YouTube entertainer told you, there’s no government or industry conspiracy to drive up the price of ammo.

When will it get better?

In my first article about this, I optimistically thought that if Republicans retained control of the Senate, we’d be back to normal supply levels with slightly increased pricing by July. Given the state of the back orders, I don’t think we’ll see a return to regular levels of supply now until early 2022.

As far as pricing? Sometime after supply gets back to normal level, and that’s assuming that nothing weird happens in 2021 (everyone knock on wood right now). Right now the best thing to do is stay calm, don’t panic buy, and let the ammo industry do everything they can to get caught up.

When Ammunition Reloading Goes Wrong

Two people injured during explosion in Venice

VENICE, Fla. – Two people were injured in a house explosion in Venice Thursday afternoon, according to Sarasota County Fire Rescue. It happened at 120 Sunset Beach Drive in Venice. Firefighters say two people were refilling (reloading) ammunition with gunpowder in a garage next to a home when the explosion occurred.

Related articles . . . .

Three Injured in Explosion at Frostproof Gun Range

By Anya Zentmeyer / THE LEDGER – Oct 18, 2013

FROSTPROOF | Three people were injured in an explosion Friday at the Universal Shooting Academy near Frostproof.
According to reports from the Polk County Sheriff’s Office, which assisted the State Fire Marshall in responding to the accident, the explosion at the facility at 4330 County Road 630 E occurred at 10:43 a.m.
Reports said employees Cody Hutto, Tyler Rodgers and Kelley Fazzini were depriming ammunition in the academy’s ammo room when for a reason still unknown, a primer ignited and caused an explosion in the building.
Hutto, 21, was struck by a piece of shrapnel to his right calf causing a laceration and by multiple pieces of small shrapnel, one of which appeared to have struck him in or near his right eye, officials said. He was flown to Lakeland Regional Medical Center where he was in stable with no serious injuries.
Rodgers, 18, was also struck with small pieces of shrapnel on his right arm and right leg. Both he and Fazzinni, 30, experienced a loud ringing in their ears as a result of the explosion. Neither party had serious injuries. Fazzini drove himself and Rodgers to Florida Hospital in Sebring.
The shooting academy is a venue for firearms competition and training. It offers military, law enforcement, and competition training at the 25-acre facility, according to its website.

Just Purchased Your First Firearm? Become GunSmart!

When you are looking for unequaled firearms training, for either personal development or to qualify for a Florida concealed carry weapons license settle for nothing less than official NRA firearms training.

If you are looking for unequaled firearms training, for either personal development or to qualify for a Florida concealed carry weapons license, visit our website at: www.ingaugeofpolkcounty.com

  • Don’t settle for 20 – 30 minutes of “I’ll show you how to do that” training at some gun shop, by an employee whose job is selling guns.
  • Don’t rely on that neighbor down the street who will show you how he does it.
  • Don’t depend on the uncle who owns a couple guns and will take you to the range to show you how he shoots.

Get official NRA firearms training that is recognized as the ‘standard‘ worldwide.

NRA firearms training teaches you more than just how to pull a trigger.

NRA basic handgun training teaches you:

  • How to correctly hold, handle and shoot your gun.
  • How to correctly load and unload your gun.
  • How to acquire a sight picture and correct sight alignment.
  • How to correctly manage and correct firearm and ammunition malfunctions.
  • How to correctly clean and store your gun.

NRA advanced handgun training teaches you:

  • How to defend your life and the lives of your loved ones.
  • How to correctly draw, present and fire your firearm in defense of your life.
  • How to correctly draw while wearing a cover garment.
  • How to correctly draw from a concealed carry purse or pocketbook.
  • How to engage single and multiple assailants.
  • How to use cover and concealment.
  • How to correctly move between cover and concealment.
  • How to fire and engage an assailant utilizing cover and concealment.
  • How to manage firearm and ammunition malfunctions while engaging an assailant.

POLK SENIOR GAMES – Pistol Competition

Deadline for registration: 5:00 PM Friday, February 14th.

Polk Senior Games Pistol Competition – Wednesday, March 11th, Lakeland, FL

Categories:

  • Men
  • Women
  • Ages
    • 50 -59
    • 60 -60
    • 70 -79
    • 80 and up

Registration information and forms can be obtained at POLK SENIOR GAMES: http://polkseniorgames.org/enter-the-games/355-2/

Phone number: (863) 533-0055

Email: polkseniorgames50@gmail.com

Are You Serious About Concealed Carry Training?

Or do you just want a ‘git r done’ quick class in order apply for a license that allow you to legally carry a deadly weapon in public?

When you are serious about defending your life and the lives of your loved ones, In-Gauge of Polk County should be your only consideration for training.
If you think all there is to carrying a deadly weapon in public is knowing how to pull a trigger, take any gun show or class conducted in a rented hotel room.
In-Gauge of Polk County teaches you how to use your firearm to defend your life and the lives of your loved ones. There is no substitute for NRA firearms training.
Thinking about taking a concealed carry weapons class in a rented hotel room?

Let the buyer beware!

Recently we have been receiving a number of inquiries regarding concealed carry weapon classes being conducted in rented hotel rooms. Most of which are being conducted by out-of-town providers that travel the state conducting weekend classes. The classes range from 1 1/2 – 3 hours and claim to provide all the training necessary to meet the State of Florida’s minimum training requirements for applying for a Florida concealed carry weapons license. In most instances that claim is an absolute falsehood.

Florida law requires that anyone conducting an approved or recognized concealed carry weapons training class must witness the student “. . . . discharge of the firearm included live fire using a firearm and ammunition as defined in s. 790.001; . . . .” Florida Statute 790.06.(2)(h)7

Those conducting hotel concealed carry weapons classes may claim to be certified NRA instructors. Do not be misled! Official NRA firearms and concealed carry classes are never taught in rented hotel rooms or at gun shows.

Those conducting hotel concealed carry weapons classes may even claim to provide fingerprinting services that will be recognized by the Florida Department of Agriculture when applying for you license. Another falsehood.

Recognized and accepted fingerprinting must be digitally performed by either a law enforcement agency, an approved county tax collector’s office or a Florida Dept. of Agriculture concealed carry weapons processing center . . . Florida Statute 790.06.(5)(c).

If the concealed carry weapons license class conducted in a rented hotel room does not include a trip the the range and involve the firing of a firearm using live ammunition, the training is not valid for applying for a State of Florida concealed carry weapons license.

Laser guns, airsoft guns or simulated firing does not qualify as “live-fire” and is not recognized by the State of Florida.

If you take a concealed carry weapons license class that does not include firing live ammunition from a real handgun, you risk losing your license processing and application fee and having your licensed revoked, if it is discovered after issuance.

Cases of revoked licenses:

Florida instructor faces trial in gun-licensing scam . . . https://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/breaking-news/os-gun-license-scam-busted-orlando-20150205-story.html

171 concealed carry permits revoked due to improper training . . . . https://fox8.com/2015/05/26/171-concealed-carry-permits-revoked-due-to-improper-training/

Polk County on road to becoming 2nd Amendment sanctuary

Polk County Commission will consider becoming a sanctuary county for gun rights under the Second Amendment

Polk County, Florida – 2nd Amendment Sanctuary County

https://www.theledger.com/news/20191217/make-polk-gun-sanctuary-commission-will-look-into-it

Polk County Commissioner John Hall wants to make the county a Second Amendment sanctuary, part of a nationwide movement against proposed restrictive gun laws.

BARTOW – The Polk County Commission will consider becoming a sanctuary county for gun rights under the Second Amendment.

The commission on Tuesday instructed County Attorney Michael Craig to research the relevant law and to present his findings at a future meeting. Craig told The Ledger after the meeting he expects to complete his research and present his findings to the commission at its Jan. 3 or Jan. 17 agenda review meeting.

Commissioner John Hall requested Craig look into a sanctuary measure because he feels Second Amendment rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution are threatened by recent efforts for tighter restrictions on gun possession and ownership. Those efforts appear to be gaining momentum recently after well publicized mass shootings in recent years.

“Every time a deranged person picks up a gun and kills people, those of us who are legal gun owners come under attack,” Hall told The Ledger after the meeting. “We should defend the rights of our citizens on all constitutional rights.”

Other commissioners agreed to have Craig research this issue with varying degrees of enthusiasm.

Chairman Bill Braswell said he didn’t know whether such a sanctuary measure is necessary but agreed to have the commission look at Craig’s findings. Commissioners Martha Santiago and Rick Wilson agreed.

“I think of this as political theater,” Commissioner George Lindsey said. “This seems to be a solution looking for a problem.”

The Second Amendment sanctuary movement appears to have gained momentum as a backlash against the movement for more restrictive gun laws.

In Virginia, for example, more than 40 local governments passed such measures after control of its legislature passed from Republicans to Democrats last month, according to a Dec. 11 story in USA Today. Democratic Gov. Ralph Northam has said he would support measures such as universal background checks for gun purchases, limits on the sale of certain types of firearms and a so-called “red flag” law allowing authorities to take guns from persons posing a danger to themselves or others, as determined by a court.

The various sanctuary measures adopted so far vary widely in scope and impact, according to internet research by The Ledger.

Some measures, such as a resolution passed by the Lake County Commission on Nov. 5, go no further than declaring the county a Second Amendment sanctuary and its support for those rights. The Ledger obtained a copy of that resolution.

Other measures go a step further and declare county officials will not cooperate with federal or state law enforcement authorities carrying out gun restrictions they consider unconstitutional.

That’s similar to the stance taken by some local governments over cooperating with federal officials enforcing immigration laws considered too harsh or illegal. That gave rise to the term “sanctuary city” or county.

Most Second Amendment sanctuary measures fall along these lines.

But a few, including some Virginia localities, declare their right to nullify any state or federal gun laws they consider unconstitutional, according to a Dec. 11 article on the news site Slate.com.

Hall told The Ledger he favored a nullification measure if the Legislature or Congress passed a gun law he considered unconstitutional.

He would not advocate nullifying a law found constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court, Hall said.

“The Supreme Court will be the ultimate decider of the Constitution,” he said.

Polk Sheriff Grady Judd said he was a strong supporter of the Second Amendment and advocates that citizens carry concealed weapons through the state’s licensing process.”

But he said he could not support a local law that instructed him to ignore state and federal gun laws.

“State and federal laws always supersede a county ordinance,” Judd told The Ledger. “What I would do as a law enforcement officer is enforce the laws of the state of Florida and the United States of America.”

Judd said he has reviewed dozens of Second Amendment sanctuary laws across the country and agreed they fall along the three categories outlined above.

Hall distinguished between Second Amendment and immigration sanctuary measures because the latter involved people breaking the law to enter and reside in the U.S., he said.

Gift Certificates – Time is running out

Time is running out to purchase the perfect stocking stuffer for the new shooter in your life.

Gift certificates are the perfect stocking stuffer for the new firearm owner or for the someone who needs a little formal training.

In-Gauge of Polk County currently has gift certificates available for all firearms and self-defense training classes.

Only days remain to order the perfect stocking stuffer for the person in your life who may be receiving a new firearm for Christmas or may have owned one for some time, but never received formal firearms training.

Sales end December 22nd

Gift certificates are available for a little as $35, for our 2 1/2 hour, minimum standards concealed carry class.

In-Gauge of Polk County has been conducting incomparable concealed carry classes, in Polk County, for over 6 years. During such time, we have trained over 5,000 law abiding citizens how to defend their lives and the lives of their loved ones. We receive numerous word-of-mouth referrals, with students traveling from as far north as Atlanta, Georgia and as far south as Fort Lauderdale and Naples to attend our classes.

However, we have not done a good job in getting the word out that we conduct more than basic ‘concealed carry’ classes.

Although our basic, 5-hour concealed carry training class (CCW 101), is head and shoulders above and beyond any other ‘concealed carry’ class conducted locally and far exceeds the minimum standard for applying for a Florida concealed carry license, we consider it a basic, orientation, self-defense, training class.

We encourage you to contact your local law enforcement agency and ask if they provided firearm training beyond a basic State qualification concealed carry class.

Ask that same agency or any gun shop or gun show concealed carry class provider if they train you in the proper technique of drawing from a holster or a pocketbook, the various methods of carrying a concealed firearm, the clearing of firearm malfunctions and jams, the utilization of cover and concealment or the tactical use of shotgun for home defense.

Contact In-Gauge of Polk County by phone at:
863-206-1996
via email at: gift.cert.ingauge@gmail.com

Gift certificates can be purchased for individual classes or training packages. Purchases can be conveniently made through Eventbrite at: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/holiday-concealed-carry-class-gift-certificates-available-tickets-85253648959?aff=utm_source%3Deb_email%26utm_medium%3Demail%26utm_campaign%3Dnew_event_email&utm_term=eventurl_text or on our website using PayPal.

A full list of firearm and self-defense classes can be found on our website at: https://ingaugeofpolkcounty.com/course-titles/

Gift Certificates Available for the new shooter in your life

Gift certificates are the perfect stocking stuffer for the new firearm owner in your life.

In-Gauge of Polk County currently has gift certificates available for all firearms and self-defense training classes.

Only a few days remain to order the perfect stocking stuffer for the person in your life who may be receiving a new firearm for Christmas or may have owned one for some time, but never received formal firearms training.

Sales end December 22nd

Gift certificates are available for a little as $35, for our 2 1/2 hour, minimum standards concealed carry class.

In-Gauge of Polk County has been conducting incomparable concealed carry classes, in Polk County, for over 6 years. During such time, we have trained over 5,000 law abiding citizens how to defend their lives and the lives of their loved ones. We receive numerous word-of-mouth referrals, with students traveling from as far north as Atlanta, Georgia and as far south as Fort Lauderdale and Naples to attend our classes.

However, we have not done a good job in getting the word out that we conduct more than basic ‘concealed carry’ classes.

Although our basic, 5-hour concealed carry training class (CCW 101), is head and shoulders above and beyond any other ‘concealed carry’ class conducted locally and far exceeds the minimum standard for applying for a Florida concealed carry license, we consider it a basic, orientation, self-defense, training class.

We encourage you to contact your local law enforcement agency and ask if they provided firearm training beyond a basic State qualification concealed carry class.

Ask that same agency or any gun shop or gun show concealed carry class provider if they train you in the proper technique of drawing from a holster or a pocketbook, the various methods of carrying a concealed firearm, the clearing of firearm malfunctions and jams, the utilization of cover and concealment or the tactical use of shotgun for home defense.

Contact In-Gauge of Polk County by phone at:
863-206-1996
via email at: gift.cert.ingauge@gmail.com

Gift certificates can be purchased for individual classes or training packages. Purchases can be conveniently made through Eventbrite at: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/holiday-concealed-carry-class-gift-certificates-available-tickets-85253648959?aff=utm_source%3Deb_email%26utm_medium%3Demail%26utm_campaign%3Dnew_event_email&utm_term=eventurl_text or on our website using PayPal.

A full list of firearm and self-defense classes can be found on our website at: https://ingaugeofpolkcounty.com/course-titles/

Gift Certificates Available for the new shooter in your life

Gift certificates are the perfect stocking stuffer for the new firearm owner in your life.

In-Gauge of Polk County currently has gift certificates available for all firearms and self-defense training classes.

Only a few days remain to order the perfect stocking stuffer for the person in your life who may be receiving a new firearm for Christmas or may have owned one for some time, but never received formal firearms training.

Sales end December 22nd

Gift certificates are available for a little as $35, for our 2 1/2 hour, minimum standards concealed carry class.

In-Gauge of Polk County has been conducting incomparable concealed carry classes, in Polk County, for over 6 years. During such time, we have trained over 5,000 law abiding citizens how to defend their lives and the lives of their loved ones. We receive numerous word-of-mouth referrals, with students traveling from as far north as Atlanta, Georgia and as far south as Fort Lauderdale and Naples to attend our classes.

However, we have not done a good job in getting the word out that we conduct more than basic ‘concealed carry’ classes.

Although our basic, 5-hour concealed carry training class (CCW 101), is head and shoulders above and beyond any other ‘concealed carry’ class conducted locally and far exceeds the minimum standard for applying for a Florida concealed carry license, we consider it a basic, orientation, self-defense, training class.

We encourage you to contact your local law enforcement agency and ask if they provided firearm training beyond a basic State qualification concealed carry class.

Ask that same agency or any gun shop or gun show concealed carry class provider if they train you in the proper technique of drawing from a holster or a pocketbook, the various methods of carrying a concealed firearm, the clearing of firearm malfunctions and jams, the utilization of cover and concealment or the tactical use of shotgun for home defense.

Contact In-Gauge of Polk County by phone at:
863-206-1996
via email at: gift.cert.ingauge@gmail.com

Gift certificates can be purchased for individual classes or training packages. Purchases can be conveniently made through Eventbrite at: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/holiday-concealed-carry-class-gift-certificates-available-tickets-85253648959?aff=utm_source%3Deb_email%26utm_medium%3Demail%26utm_campaign%3Dnew_event_email&utm_term=eventurl_text or on our website using PayPal.

A full list of firearm and self-defense classes can be found on our website at: https://ingaugeofpolkcounty.com/course-titles/

Gift Certificates Available for All Training Classes

Gift certificates are the perfect stocking stuffer for the new firearm owner in your life.

In-Gauge of Polk County currently has gift certificates available for all firearms and self-defense training classes.

Only a few days remain to order the perfect stocking stuffer for the person in your life who may be receiving a new firearm for Christmas or may have owned one for some time, but never received formal firearms training.

Sales end December 22nd

Gift certificates are available for a little as $35, for our 2 1/2 hour, minimum standards concealed carry class.

In-Gauge of Polk County has been conducting incomparable concealed carry classes, in Polk County, for over 6 years. During such time, we have trained over 5,000 law abiding citizens how to defend their lives and the lives of their loved ones. We receive numerous word-of-mouth referrals, with students traveling from as far north as Atlanta, Georgia and as far south as Fort Lauderdale and Naples to attend our classes.

However, we have not done a good job in getting the word out that we conduct more than basic ‘concealed carry’ classes.

Although our basic, 5-hour concealed carry training class (CCW 101), is head and shoulders above and beyond any other ‘concealed carry’ class conducted locally and far exceeds the minimum standard for applying for a Florida concealed carry license, we consider it a basic, orientation, self-defense, training class.

We encourage you to contact your local law enforcement agency and ask if they provided firearm training beyond a basic State qualification concealed carry class.

Ask that same agency or any gun shop or gun show concealed carry class provider if they train you in the proper technique of drawing from a holster or a pocketbook, the various methods of carrying a concealed firearm, the clearing of firearm malfunctions and jams, the utilization of cover and concealment or the tactical use of shotgun for home defense.

Contact In-Gauge of Polk County by phone at:
863-206-1996
via email at: gift.cert.ingauge@gmail.com

Gift certificates can be purchased for individual classes or training packages. Purchases can be conveniently made through Eventbrite at: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/holiday-concealed-carry-class-gift-certificates-available-tickets-85253648959?aff=utm_source%3Deb_email%26utm_medium%3Demail%26utm_campaign%3Dnew_event_email&utm_term=eventurl_text or on our website using PayPal.

A full list of firearm and self-defense classes can be found on our website at: https://ingaugeofpolkcounty.com/course-titles/